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ANSWER: Called muzzle loading as it was loaded from the muzzle. In general, the sequence of loading is to put in first gunpowder, by pouring in a measured amount of loose powder, historically mostly by using a powder flask (or powder horn), The gunpowder used is typically black powder. Typically two types of gunpowder (and two flasks) were needed, as the priming powder for the pan was finer than the coarse powder used for the main charge behind the ball.
Wadding, is made from felt, paper, cloth or card and has several different uses. In smooth bore muskets and pistols wadding was used primarily to hold the powder in place.